Sāgaramati translation

Translation by Sāgaramati (from https://thebuddhistcentre.com/system/files/groups/files/thirty_verses_trans.pdf)

[1] The metaphor of ātman and dharmas, which occurs in diverse ways, is a transformation of vijñāna. And that transformation is threefold:

[2] Maturation (vipāka), what is called ‘mentation’(manana), and the cognition (vijñapti) of objects. Among these the vijñāna that is ‘maturation’ is called the ‘repository’ (ālaya), which is all the seeds (bījas).

[3] And that (ālaya) possesses a subliminal (asaṃvidita) cognition of place (sthāna), which it grasps at (upādi). It is always accompanied by contact (sparśa), attention (manaskāra), sensation (vedanā), apperception (saṃjñā), and intention (cetanā).

[4] The ālaya’s feeling-tone is indifference (upekṣā), it is unobstructed (nivṛta) and [karmically] undetermined (avyākṛta). The same is true of contact, etc. It flows on like a river in spate.

[5] The cessation of this ‘stream’ takes place when one attains Arhantship. With the ālaya as support (āśritya), there originates the vijñāna called manas, which has the ālaya as its object. It has the nature of ‘mentation’.

[6] [Manas is] always accompanied by four afflictions (kleśas), which are obstructing, but karmically undetermined. They are known as ‘self-view (ātmadṛṣṭi), self-delusion (ātmamoha), self-conceit (ātmamāna), and self-love (ātmasneha)’.

[7] Wherever it [the manas] is produced, so too are the others such as contact, etc. [But] it does not [exist] in the Arhant. Nor does it exist in the attainment of cessation (nirodha-samāpatti), nor in the supra-mundane (lokottara) path.

[8] This is the second transformation. The third is sixfold. The perception (upalabdhi) of the six sense objects is of two kinds, either wholesome (kuśala) or unwholesome (akuśala).

[9] It is associated with the omnipresent (sarvatraga), object-determining (viniyata), and skilful mental events (caittas), as well as the afflictions (kleśas) and secondary afflictions (upakleśas). The feeling-tone can be of three kinds.

[10] Beginning with contact, etc. [the omnipresent caittas], then interest, determination, memory, concentration, discernment [the object-determining caittas], followed by confidence (śraddhā), conscience(hrī), sense of shame (apatrapā),

[11] the three beginning with non-attachment (alobha), vigour (vīrya), serenity (praśrabdhi), alertness (apramādha), non-violence (ahiṃsa), which make up the skilful; [then the] afflictions (kleśas): greed (rāga), enmity (pratigha), confusion (mūḍha),

[12] conceit (māna), views (dṛś), and indecision (vicikitsā), [the upakleṣas] rage (krodha), resentment (upanahana), slyness (mrakṣa), spite (pradāśa), jealousy (īrṣyātha), avarice (mātsarya), together with deceit (māyā),

[13] dishonesty (śāṭhya), intoxication (mada), violence (vihiṃsā), lack of conscience (ahrī), lack of shame (atrapā), rigidity(styāna), ebullience (uddhava), lack of confidence (āśraddhya), laziness (kausīdya), heedlessness (pramāda), unmindfulness (muṣitā smṛti),

[14] desultoriness (vikṣepa), lack of clarity (asamprajanya), anxiety (kaukṛtya) and sloth (middha), and initial (vitarka) and applied thought (vicāra). These are the associated afflictions (upakleśā) and the [last] two pairs are two-fold.

[15] The production of the five vijñānas arises according to conditions in the root-vijñāna [the ālaya]; these vijñānas [arise sometimes] together, [sometimes] just like ocean waves.

[16] The mano-vijñāna arises at all times, except for the asaṃjñika [beings], those in the two samāpattis, those in states of torpor and stupefaction, or who are unconscious.

[17] This transformation of vijñānais a [mental] constructing (vikalpa). Whatever is constructed, that therefore does not exist [in itself]. Thus all this is cognition-only (vijñapti-mātra).

[18] [The ālaya-]Vijñāna is indeed all the seeds; transformation [takes place in] such and such a way. It proceeds from the power of reciprocal [influence], by which this and that construction (vikalpa) is generated.

[19] The residual impressions (vāsanā) of actions, together with the residual impressions of the twofold grasping, create other vipākas [after] the former vipākas are exhausted,

[20] By such and such constructing (vikalpa), such and such a thing is constructed. As a truly existing [thing] it does not exist -it is only the Imagined (parikalpita).

[21] The self-nature (svabhāva) of the Other-Dependent (paratantra) [= pratītya-samutpāda] is a construction (vikalpa) that arises [in dependence] upon conditions. However, the Perfected (pariniṣpanna) is always free from the former [i.e.svabhāva].

[22] For this very reason, the Other-Dependent is neither other, nor not other than the Perfected. It is said to be like impermanence, etc. –when this [Other-Dependent] is not seen, that [Perfected] will not be seen [or vice versa?]

[23] The self-naturelessness (niḥsvabhāvatā) of all dharmas was taught in connection with the threefold self-naturelessness of the threefold self-nature.

[24] The first is without self-nature (niḥsvabhāva) by its very character; the second is [by definition] without self-existence (na svayaṃbhāva); and the third is the very state of the absence of self-nature.

[25] The ultimate [nature] of [all] dharmas is also Suchness (tathatā), because its nature is always just as it is. It is just the state of cognition-only (vijñapti-mātra).

[26] As long as the mind does not abide in the state of cognition-only, the latent disposition (anuśaya) of the twofold grasping (grāha-dvaya) will not cease.

[27] Placing something before one and saying: ‘Just this is cognition-only’, one does not abide in cognition-only, because this is also seizing [an object].

[28] When that very vijñāna does not seize an object, then it remains in the state of cognition-only, which is the non-existence of [an object] to be grasped due to non-grasping.

[29] This [state] is unthinkable (acitta), ungraspable (anupalambha), is supermundane (lokottara) knowledge, the revolution of the basis (āśrayasya parāvṛtti) due to the abandonment of the twofold impediment [i.e. kleśāvaraṇa and jñeyāvaraṇa].

[30] It is inconceivable (acintya), beneficent, the element (dhātu) without defilement (anāsrava), lasting (dhruva). This is the ‘body’ of liberation (vimukti-kāya), which is blissful, called the Dharma of the Mahāmuni.

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